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Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Conquest of Makkah

Conquest of Makkah

In 630 C.E. the Holy Prophet mustered a force ten thousand strong and marched to Makkah. The Quraish of Makkah were no longer capable of offering any resistance to the Muslims. Abu Sufyan the leader of the Quraish waited on the Holy Prophet, offered submission and became a convert to Islam. The city of Makkah was occupied by the Muslims without any battle. The Muslims who had been driven away from the city only eight years earlier were now the masters of the city. Thus God fulfilled the promise that He had made to His Prophet. It was a veritable vindication of the truth of Islam.

The Holy Prophet visited the Kaaba, and one by one all the idols therein were broken and destroyed. That marked the coming of the Truth and the vanishing of falsehood. Thereafter the Holy Prophet addressed the people assembled in the Kaaba in the following terms:

"There is no god but Allah. He has no associate. He is omniscient and omni-potent. He has made good the promise that He had held to His Messenger. He had helped him in overcoming his enemies. With the triumph of Truth a new era has dawned characterized by the vanishing of falsehood. Henceforward there will be no faith other than Islam, the faith ordained by Allah. I give you the tidings of an era of justice and peace. Bear in mind that every claim of privilege whether that of blood or property is abolished, except that the custody of the Kaaba, and of supplying water to the pilgrims. Let it be known that for any one who is slain the bloodwit is hundred camels. O people of the Quraish, surely God has abolished from you all pride of the time of ignorance and all pride in your ancestry because all men are descended from Adam".

Then turning to the people of Makkah, the Holy Prophet posed the question:

"O you Quraish, what do you think of the treatment that I should accord you"?

The people said with one voice:

"Mercy O Prophet of Allah; we expect nothing but good from you".

In the hour of triumph the Holy Prophet was most forgiving. He said:

"O the people of Makkah, I speak to you in the same words as the prophet Joseph spoke to his brothers. This day there is no reproof against you. Go your way, for you are free".

The announcement was received with great joy and applause. Although general immunity was granted to the people of Makkah, an exception was made in the case of half a dozen persons whose crimes had been too heinous to be forgiven. These persons included Abdullah b Saad a foster brother of Uthman. Abdullah b Saad had accepted Islam and the Holy Prophet availed of his services as a scribe for noting down the revelations. Abdullah b Saad was found guilty of interpolation and falsifying the revelations. When taken to task Abdullah b Saad apostatized and escaped to Makkah. The Holy Prophet was too much annoyed with him, and his orders were that he was to be executed for his sacrilegious conduct. Abdullah b Saad sought the protection of Uthman and prevailed upon him to intercede with the Holy Prophet on his behalf. Uthman was not inclined to undertake the hazardous mission, but when his foster mother, the mother of Abdullah b Saad appealed to him Uthman promised to do whatever he could do to save the life of Abdullah b Saad.

When the Holy Prophet granted general amnesty to the people of Makkah Uthman waited on the Holy Prophet, and said, "On this day of triumph I seek a favor from you O Prophet of God". The Holy Prophet said, "Yes, Uthman, you may ask whatever you wish". Uthman said, "I crave the life of Abdullah b Saad. I know of his crimes but he is repentant and God is Forgiving. He is my foster brother and my foster mother has put great pressure on me to intercede in his behalf". The Holy Prophet remained silent. After some time Uthman repeated his request. The Holy Prophet still gave no reply. When Uthman repeated his request for the third time, the Holy Prophet said: "Alright; let him be free. May God forgive him".

Thereafter all the Quraish of Makkah were converted to Islam and they took the oath of allegiance to the Holy Prophet. These included the mother of Uthman, his step brothers and sisters and other members of his family. The family which had remained apart on account of difference in faith was now reunited, and this reunion was a matter of great joy for Uthman. After conversion to Islam, the people of Makkah began a new life. Heretofore they had been the inveterate enemies of Islam, henceforward they were to be the dedicated servants of Islam.

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