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Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Re-Conquest of Fars

Reconquest of Fars under Uthman

During the caliphate of Uthman, the people of Fars revolted against the Muslim rule. No details about the revolt are available. Obviously the Persians wanted to throw off the yoke of the Muslims. Under Uthman, the process of the reconquest of Fars had to be taken up afresh.

The accounts of the campaigns that were undertaken to reclaim Fars available in the source books are too sketchy and brief. It appears that the revolt began at Persepolis. The Muslim garrison at Persepolis under the command of Abdullah b Ma'amar was outnumbered and could not cope with the situation. In the confrontation that took place between the Muslims and the Persians the Muslims suffered defeat and were driven away from Persepolis. Uthman directed Abdullah b 'Aamir the Governor General of Basra to take immediate steps to retrieve the situation. Abdullah b'Aamir marched at the head of a large force to Persepolis. The Persians closed the gates of the city. The Muslim force besieged the city, and took it by assault. The citizens surrendered and agreed to pay tribute.

From Persepolis, the Muslim forces advanced to Al j bard. Some feeble resistance was offered which was overcome and the city was captured by the Muslims. Peace was made on the usual terms of the Persians agreeing to pay tribute.

Thereafter the Muslim force advanced to Jor. The Persians gave battle but they were defeated and the city was captured by the Muslims. Peace was made on the usual term of the payment of Jizya.

While the main Muslim force was still at Jor, the people of Persepolis broke into revolt once again. They expelled the Muslim ruler from the city, and re-established the Persian rule. Abdullah b 'Aamir rushed from Jor to Persepolis. Persepolis had strong walls and the Persians shut themselves within the city. The Muslims besieged the city, and succeeded in demolishing the walls. The Persians were thus forced to come out of the city. A violent battle took place outside the city. In the hand to hand fight the Persians were no match for the Arabs. The Persian force suffered great slaughter, and they ultimately laid down arms. As the people of Persepolis had revolted repeatedly and no reliance could be placed on their promises very stringent teems were imposed this time. immense booty fell into the hands of the Muslims. All leaders among the Persians who were guilty of instigating the revolt were hunted out and executed.

With the fall of Persepolis, other cities in Fars also submitted unconditionally. Thus the Muslims once again became the masters of Fars. Uthman appointed Shareek b Aaor Harithi as the governor of Fars. Shareek restored law and order. He sent missionaries of Islam to various cities. Shareek's analysis of the situation was that the Persians had revolted for they still followed their old religion, and that the only way to peace was that the people should be converted to Islam, so that they were cut off from their old associations. As a result of the efforts of the Muslim missionaries conversions to Islam took place on a large scale. Under the orders of Uthman, mosques were built in the various cities of Fars, and these became the centers for the promotion of Islam.

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